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FORMULAS

What is the formula for converting cutting speed Vc to rotational speed RPM?

RPM = Vc x 3.82 / DIA
What is the formula for converting RPM rotation speed to Vc cutting speed? 

Vc = RPM x 0.262 x DIA
What is the formula for calculating the advance per minute Vf?

Vf = RPM x fn (piece in rotation)
Vf = RPM x fz x Zn (tool in rotation)
What is the formula for calculating chip flow Q to inches3/min?

Q = Vc x ap x fn x 12 (piece in rotation)
Q = ae x ap x V(tool in rotation)
What is the formula for calculating the effective cutting diameter Dθ on a ball end mill?

Dθ = 2 x √ (ae x (DIA – ae))
What is the role of lubricant in machining?

Lubricant has multiple roles, the main one is cooling the cutting area, but it also serves to clear the chips of the cutting tool and improves the surface condition of the workpiece.
While milling, is it better to operate dry or under water?

Since milling is by nature intermittent, to prolong the life of the edges it is preferable to machine dry except for the finishing of stainless steels and aluminum (to prevent sticking of particles on the surface of the workpiece), for milling low-speed refractory superalloys (to lubricate and cool the workpiece), for milling thin-walled parts (to prevent deformation of the workpiece) or to facilitate chip evacuation when machining deep cavities.
RPM : Spindle speed
Vc : Cutting speed
DIA : Diameter
: Chip flow
Dθ : Effective cutting diameter
V: Feed per minute
fn : Feed in inches per revolution
fz : Feed.
Zn : Number of teeth

ap : Depth of cut
ae : Engagement en pouce.

 

GLOSSARY

Cutting fluid

Cutting fluit is a type of coolant and lubricant designed specifically for metalworking processes, such as machining and stamping.
 

Concentricity
The extent to which an object has a common center or axis.  In geometry, two objects are said to be concentric, coaxal, or coaxial when they share the same center or axis. 

 

Clearance
The angle below and behind the cutting edge, allowing it to enter the workpiece and perform the machining operation. 


Axial run-out
The result of a rotating component not being parallel with the axis, such as a drill chuck not holding the drill exactly in line with the axis. An excessive axial run-out will cause chipping or rupture of the tool. 


Vibration
Oscillatory movement between the cutitng tool and the workpiece resulting in a lower surface condition or potentially premature failure of the tool.  

 

Chip breaker 
A shoulder in a machine tool made by grinding a groove parallel to the cutting edge or by attaching a plate to the top to form a wall against which the chip produced in turning or other machining will be broken up. 
On carbide plates, chip breakers can be rectified or pressed. 


Depth of cut (ap)
The amount of material per pass that the cutting tool will take 
during the machining operation. It is equal to the distance from the uncut surface to the machined surface. 


Edge Prep
Reinforcement of the cutting edge through a round of or a chamfer on the edge.


Feed (Vf)
The distance a tool travels through a part in a unit of time expressed in inches / mm per minute or inches / mm per revolution.


Cutting speed
Cutting speed represents the distance traveled in feet per minute or meters per minute of the workpiece relative to the tool tooth (when the piece is rotating) or a corresponding cutting tool tooth with the workpiece (when the tool is rotating). 

 
Spindle speed
Expressed as the number of revolutions per minute, it is a measure of the spindle speed. 

 

 

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